Return to blog post
Return to ICB Menu

Building the Internal Chronology of the Bible

My Journey: Filling the Gap

So, on to filling the gap between the death of Lëwî in T307 Ken     and the Exodus in T430 Ken. Knowing the ages of Möshëh and @Aárön in the year of the Exodus allowed me to put their birth years on the chart.
Chart 1: Life Years during Years in Mitsräyim
ICBLife YrsEventRef
T170 KenT085 YaøqLëwî bornGen 29.34
T175 KenT090 Yaøqsëph bornGen 30.22-24
T180 KenT095 YaøqYaøáqöv returns to KenaøanGen 31:38
T192 KenT107 Yaøqsëph sold into slavery by his brothersGen 37.25
T205 KenT120 YaøqYitschäq dies at 180yo; Yôsëph at 30yo stands before ParøôhGen 35.28
T215 KenT130 YaøqYaøáqöv meets ParøôhGen 47.9
T232 KenT147 YaøqYaøáqöv dies at 147yo; Yôsëph at 57yo; Lëwî at 62 yoGen 47.28
T285 KenT115 Lëwîsëph dies at 110yoGen 50.22
T307 KenT137 LëwîLëwî dies at 137 yoExo 6.16
T347 KenT00 @Ahár@Aárön bornCalculation
T350 KenT00 MöshëhMöshëh bornCalculation
T430 KenT80 MöshëhThe Exodus; Möshëh at 80yo; @Aárön at 83yoExo 7.7

Interesting. There were 40 years between the death of Lëwî   and the birth of @Aárön. I don't know that that means anything but it is interesting since 40 years is an important number in Scripture. But, at this stage, I still had a lot of questions. So, what else did Scripture have to say about life years or other chronological information? The genealogy list of Möshëh and @Aárön in Exodus 6 gave life length years for the three generations preceding Möshëh and @Aárön: Lëwi lived for 137 years (Ex 6:16), Qeäth lived for 133 years (Ex 6:18), and ØAmräm lived for 137 years (Ex 6:20). So that made Möshëh and @Aárön the fourth generation. Well, well, well. The fourth generation. I do believe YHWH said something about that to @Avrähäm.

Then a fourth generation will return themselves ~ for the @Émorî [are] not yet full of inquity. # (Gen 15.16)

So, it would seem the four generations to which YHWH was referring would be Lëwî,     Qehäth,     ØAmräm, and     @Aárön/Möshëh. Given that these four generations are the only line of Yaøáqöv's sons for which Scripture gives life years, I think that confirms this is the line to which YHWH was referring. But how to fit them into the Chronology? Unfortunately, Scripture does not indicate when Qehäth and ØAmräm were born in relation to Lëwî or anyone else for that matter. Still, a little estimating could go a long way here. However, shortly into working up estimating charts, I realized ØAmräm might not be Qehäth's eldest son, even though Scripture consistantly listed ØAmräm first in lists of Qeäth's sons. Through solving the logic puzzle of the birth order of Nöãch's sons, I knew Scripture did not necessarily list sons in birth order. The birth order of Nöãch's sons is Yäpheth, Shëm, and Chäm, while the birth order of Terach's sons is Härän, @Avräm, and Nächôr. In both those instances, the son through whom the Line of the Promise ran was listed first and       the eldest was shifted to the last position. But, if the scribes shifted ØAmräm to top of the list because he was the son through whom the four generations ran, what was the original birth position of ØAmräm?       Second?       Third?       Fourth? That turned out to be a complicated question, but the short answer is I settled on ØAmräm as the fourth and youngest son of Qehäth. That position worked best in the Chronology. I worked up charts using two formulas: 40 year generations and       50 year generations, starting from the birth of Lëwî, and using five years between the births of siblings. I'm trying to remember now why I used a 40 year generation count. It had something to do with the Genesis geneaologies and discovering that a 40 year generation was one of YHWH @Élöhîm's Story clocks,   the same as the Sabbatical Week clock was a Story clock. With respect to the 50 year generation, that was just my second option. One reason I concluded ØAmräm was not Qehäth's eldest son was because, in both formulas, ØAmräm's children would have been born too early in the timeline for consistancy with Scripture life years. Granted, the formulas I used were arbitrary and     ØAmräm could have been a lot older than 40 or 50 when he became a father, but I was working with these formulas. However, if I don't apply the formulas directly to ØAmräm as Qehäth's eldest son, and count down to his children's births, then, in the 40 year generation formula, ØAmräm would have been 70 years old when Miryäm was born and     80 years old when Möshëh was born. In the 50 year forumla, he would have been 65 years old when Miryäm was born and       75 years old when Möshëh was born. That is possible but not necessary because one of the formulas worked.
Chart 2: Four 40 year generations
ICBLife YrEventGeneration #Ref
T170 KenT085 YaqLëwî born of Lë@äh (16 Nisan)1st generationG29.34
T210 KenT040 Lëwî?Gërshôn born to Lëwî at 40yo?
T215 KenT130 YaqYisrä@ël moves to Mitsräyim
T045 Lëwî? Qehäth born to Lëwî?2nd generation
T220 KenT050 Lëwî?Merarî born to Lëwî?
T255 KenT085 Lëwî?Yitshär born to Qehäth at 40yo?
T260 KenT090 Lëwî?Chevrôn born to Qehäth?
T265 KenT095 Lëwî?ØUzzî@ël born to Qehäth?
T270 KenT100 Lëwî?ØAmräm born to Qehäth?3rd generation
T307 KenT137 Lëwî?Lëwî dies? at 137yoExo 6.16
T310 KenT040 ØAm?Miryäm born to ØAmräm at 40yo?
T315 KenT045 ØAm@Aárön born to ØAmräm4th generation
Obviously, the 40 year generations formula did not work, even with ØAmräm as the youngest son, since it placed @Aárön's birth in T315 Ken,      and he was born in T347 Ken. So, on to the next option: a 50 year generation count.
Chart 3: Four 50 year generations
ICBLife YrEventGeneration #Ref
T170 KenT085 YaqLëwî born of Lë@äh (16 Nisan)1st generationGen 29.34
T220 KenT050 Lëwî?Gërshôn born to Lëwî?
T225 KenT055 Lëwî?Qehäth born to Lëwî?2nd generation
T230 KenT060 Lëwî?Merarî born to Lëwî?
T275 KenT105 Lëwî?Yitshär born to Qehäth at 50yo?
T280 KenT110 Lëwî?Chevrôn born to Qehäth?
T285 KenT115 Lëwî?ØUzzî@ël born to Qehäth?
T290 KenT120 Lëwî?ØAmräm born to Qehäth?3rd generation
T307 KenT137 Lëwî?Lëwî dies? at 137yoExo 6.16
T340 KenT050 ØAm?Miryäm born to ØAmräm?
T347 KenT057 ØAm@Aárön born to ØAmräm4th generation
T350 KenT060 ØAmMöshëh born to ØAmräm
As you can see, the 50 year generations worked if there were 7 years between Miryäm and @Aárön (because @Aárön was three years older than Möshëh). That would make Miryäm 10 years old when Möshëh was born and of sufficient age to keep watch over Möshëh in the reed basket. Well, that gave me a basic chart in which to fit other events Scripture records prior to the Exodus. In Chart 4, I added in the death dates for Qehäth and ØAmräm based on the 50 year generations. I find it interesting that this formula puts ØAmräm's death three years before the Exodus. That would explain why Möshëh's father-in-law was the one giving him advice after the Yäm Sûf crossing.
Chart 4: Four 50 year generations
ICBLife YrEventGeneration #Ref
T170 KenT085 YaqLëwî born of Lë@äh (16 Nisan)1st generationGen 29.34
T220 KenT050 Lëwî?Gërshôn born to Lëwî?
T225 KenT055 Lëwî?Qehäth born to Lëwî?2nd generation
T230 KenT060 Lëwî?Merarî born to Lëwî?
T275 KenT105 Lëwî?Yitshär born to Qehäth at 50yo?
T280 KenT110 Lëwî?Chevrôn born to Qehäth?
T285 KenT115 Lëwî?ØUzzî@ël born to Qehäth?
T290 KenT120 Lëwî?ØAmräm born to Qehäth?3rd generation
T307 KenT137 Lëwî?Lëwî dies? at 137yoExo 6.16
T340 KenT050 ØAm?Miryäm born to ØAmräm?
T347 KenT057 ØAm@Aárön born to ØAmräm4th generation
T350 KenT060 ØAmMöshëh born to ØAmräm
T358 KenT068 ØAmQehäth dies at 133yo
T427 KenT077 MöshØAmräm dies at 137yo
T430 KenT080 MöshThe Exodus
But I was still curious about something. The 40-year generation used a common Biblical time span. What if 40 years was the correct count to use but ØAmräm was the odd son out? What if ØAmräm was the son of Qehäth's old age and did not fit into the 40-year generations formula like everyone else       but rather into the 50-year generations formula? How old would Qehäth have been when ØAmräm was born   if the life dates for ØAmram in the 50-year generations formula       (in which the life dates for ØAmräm worked),     are used in the 40-year generations formula? Qehäth would have been 75 years old when ØAmräm was born. So, this scenario is a distinct possibility. But then I wondered about Yôkeved, Möshëh and @Aárön's mother. Where does she fit into the Chronology?

Exo 2.1 And a man went from the house of Lëwî and took a daughter of Lëwî. Exo 6:20 ØAmräm took as his wife Yôkeved his father's sister, and she bore him @Aárön and Möshëh, the years of the life of ØAmräm being 137 years. Num 6:59 And the name of ØAmräm 's wife was Yôkeved, the daughter of Lëwî, who was born to Lëwî in Mitsräyim. And she bore @Aárön and Möshëh to ØAmräm, and their sister Miryäm.

The first description of Yôkeved in Scripture is simply as a daughter of Lëwî. But then Scripture adds a little more information, describing her as ØAmram's father's sister, which would make Yôkeved a direct daughter of Lëwî. Then Numbers chimes in with the information that Yôkeved was born to Lëwî in Mitsräyim. Well, that would seem to disqualify Yôkeved as anything but Lëwî's daughter, but there was the fact that, in the Ancient Near East, a granddaughter could be listed as a daughter by lineal extension.(1)(2) In which case, ØAmräm marrying Yôkeved would have been a parallel cousin marriage instead of a nephew-aunt marriage. In the Ancient Near East, parallel cousin marriages(3) meant a man marrying his father's brother's daughter   or his mother's sister's daughter.     A cross cousin marriage was marrying his father's sister's daughter       or his mother's brother's daughter. The most desirable cousin marriage was marrying one's father's brother's daughter.(4) This is what ØËsäw did in marrying his father's brother Yishmäø@l's daughter Mächálath after Yaøáqöv went to his mother's brother Lävän to find a cross-cousin wife among his daughters. This is also sort of what Yitschäq did because Rivqäh was the granddaughter of @Avrähäm's brother Nächôr, and thus Yitschäq's first cousin once removed. But first, to establish a plausible age range for Yôkeved at Möshëh's birth. Women can bear children naturally only for a limited time, say 12 years old to 50 years old. Since I think the miracle surrounding Möshëh's birth was his not being killed by the Mitsräyim and then being found by Parøöh's daughter, and not the age of his mother (as it was with Säräh)(5), I think Yôkeved was within the normal child-bearing age range when she bore Möshëh. So, how does the timeline work for Yôkeved as Lëwî's grandaughter,   the daughter of either Gërshôn or Merarî,    and for Yôkeved as Lëwî's daughter?
Chart 4: Yôkeved
ICBLife YrEventGeneration #Ref
T170 KenT085 YaqLëwî born of Lë@äh (16 Nisan)1st generationGen 29.34
T215 KenT130 YaqYisrä@ël moves to Mitsr228;yim
T220 KenT050 Lëwî?Gërshôn born to Lëwî?
T225 KenT055 Lëwî?Qehäth born to Lëwî?2nd generation
T230 KenT060 Lëwî?Merarî born to Lëwî?
T270 Ken T100 Lëwî?Livnî born to Gërshôn at 50yo?
T275 KenT105 Lëwî?Yitshär born to Qehäth at 50yo?
?Shimøî born to Gërshôn at 55yo?
T280 KenT110 Lëwî?Chevrôn born to Qehäth?
?Yôkeved born to Gërshôn at 60yo?
?Machlî born to Merarî at 50yo?
T285 KenT115 Lëwî?ØUzzî@ël born to Qehäth?
sëph dies at 110yo
?Mûshî born to Merarî at 55yo?
T290 KenT120 Lëwî?ØAmräm born to Qehäth?3rd generation
?Yôkeved born to Merarî at 60yo?
T300 KenT130 Lëwî?Yôkeved born to Lëwî? at 130yo??
T305 KenT135 Lëwî?Yôkeved born to Lëwî? at 135yo?
T307 KenT137 Lëwî?Lëwî dies? at 137yoExo 6.16
?Yôkeved born posthumously to Lëwî?
T320 Ken?Yôkeved born to Gërshôn at 100 yr or Merarî at 90 yo?
T340 KenT050 ØAm?Miryäm born to ØAmräm?
T347 KenT057 ØAm@Aárön born to ØAmräm4th generation
T350 KenT060 ØAmMöshëh born to ØAmräm
?Yôkeved at 70yo if born in T280 Ken?
?Yôkeved at 60yo if born in T290 Ken?
?Yôkeved at 50yo if born in T300 Ken?
?Yôkeved at 45yo if born in T305 Ken?
?Yôkeved at 43yo if born in T307 Ken?
?Yôkeved at 30yo if born in T320 Ken?
T358 KenT068 ØAmQehäth dies at 133yo
T427 KenT077 MöshØAmräm dies at 137yo
T430 KenT080 MöshThe Exodus
Putting in Yôkeved as the youngest child of either Gërshôn or Merarî and using the five years between siblings pattern in the 50-year generations chart makes her 60 or 70 years old when Möshëh was born. Looking backward and setting Yôkeved's age as 30 years old when Möshëh was born means she would have been born in T320 Ken when Gërshôn was 100 years old       and Merarî was 90 years old, according to the 50-year generations chart estimations. That's certainly possible. Now looking at Yôkeved as Lëwî's direct daughter. Lëwî died in T307 Ken. Therefore, Yôkeved could not have been younger than 43 years old when Möshëh was born, and that's only if she was a posthumous child of Lëwî. If she was the oldest possible age of 50 years old at Möshëh's birth, she would have been born when Lëwî was 130 years old,     Gërshôn was 80 years old, and     Merarî was 70 years old. Given that men can father children at a much older age than women can bear them, I would have to consider any of these a possibility. So, Yôkeved could have been either Lëwî's daughter and ØAmräm's aunt       or Lëwî's grandaughter and ØAmräm's parallel cousin. However, in light of Occam's Razor (among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected), the simplest hypothesis is that the Scripture reference is straight-forward here: Yôkeved was Lëwî's daughter and       ØAmräm's aunt. So, how old was Yôkeved the daughter of Lëwî when she bore Möshëh? I decided to go with her being 45 years old. 50 years old was pushing it as pretty old for child-bearing and 43 years old was pushing it with respect to Lëwî. Yôkeved could have been a posthumous child of Lëwî -- that does happen -- but I think her being born two years before Lëwî died, is more likely   than after he died. So, now I could chart Yôkeved's birth year. However, I decided to use the 40-year generation chart with ØAmräm's life dates from the 50-year generation chart. That just chimes in my spirit as more consistant with Scripture. The only other thing that changed was Qehäth's death year.
Chart 8: Years in Mitsräyîm
ICBLife YrEventGeneration #Ref
T170 KenT085 YaqLëwî born of Lë@äh (16 Nisan)1st generationG29.34
T210 KenT040 Lëwî?Gërshôn born to Lëwî at 40yo?
T215 KenT130 YaqYisrä@ël moves to Mitsräyim
T045 Lëwî? Qehäth born to Lëwî?2nd generation
T220 KenT050 Lëwî?Merarî born to Lëwî?
T255 KenT085 Lëwî?Yitshär born to Qehäth at 40yo?
T260 KenT090 Lëwî?Chevrôn born to Qehäth?
T265 KenT095 Lëwî?ØUzzî@ël born to Qehäth?
T270 KenT100 Lëwî?ØAmräm born to Qehäth?3rd generation
T290 KenT120 Lëwî?ØAmräm born to Qehäth?3rd generation
T305 KenT135 Lëwî? Yôkeved born to Lëwî at 135 yo?
T307 KenT137 Lëwî?Lëwî dies? at 137yoExo 6.16
T340 KenT050 ØAm?Miryäm born to ØAmräm?
T347 KenT057 ØAm@Aárön born to ØAmräm4th generation
T348 KenT058 ØAmQehäth dies at 133yo
T350 KenT060 ØAmMöshëh born to ØAmräm
T427 KenT077 MöshØAmräm dies at 137yo
T430 KenT080 MöshThe Exodus
At last, I had a chart for the years Yisrä@ël lived in Mitsräyim based on life years. Granted many of the life dates are estimations, but the chart does work as a consistant chronology for the Mitsräyim years. So, that's the story of how I built the chart for the Years in Mitsräyim and   filled in the gap between the death of Lëwî in T307 Ken and     the Exodus in T430 Ken. FOOTNOTES (1) Voinov, Vitaly. "Observations on Old Testament Kinship Relations and Terminiology," pp 3.     http://www.academia.edu/1986302/OBSERVATIONS_ON_OLD_TESTAMENT_KINSHIP_RELATIONS_AND_TERMINOLOGY,     retrieved 11/07/2017 Return (2) Scripture uses two identifications for Yëhû@ I, a king of Yisrä@ël.     In 1 Kings 19.16, and 2 Kings 9.20, he is identified as Yëhû@ ben->Nimshî.     However, in 2 Kings 9.2 and 9.14, he is called Yëhû@ ben->Yehôshäphät ben->Nimshî.     So, Scripture identifies Yëhû@ as descended from Nimshî, his grandfather, rather than simply from his father Yehôshäphät.     This is an example of 'lineal extension.' Return (3) Voinov, op.cit., p. 4 Return (4) Voinov, ibid. Return (5) I realize Jewish tradition holds that Yôkeved was 130 years old when Möshëh was born, but I just don’t think so.     http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/8699-jochebed Return

Return to blog post Return to ICB Menu Legal Stuff:   Copyright 2017 by Dori Scholar.   Permission to distribute this material via e-mail, or individual copies for personal use, is granted on the condition that it will be used for non-commercial purposes, will not be sold, and no changes made to the format or content.   When quoting, please keep the context and provide the source   URL: http://www.badgerholt.com.       Scriptures are cited from New American Standard Bible (NASB), English Standard Version (ESV) Young's Literal Translation (YLT), Geneva Bible, 1599 ed., Jay Green's KJ3: Literal Translation, Gary Zella's Analytical Literal Translation of the New Testament, or my own translation (dmd).