My Journey: Filling the Gap

Well, looking into the 430 years and 400 years question was a bit of a detour, but one thing it did do was establish that, according to Scripture, the 430 years counts from when @Avrähäm entered the land of Kenaøan and the benê-Yisrä@ël left Mitsräyim. The importance of that was I now had a running count for the ICB in which to fit all the events between the two anchor events.

Now, the next step was to fill in the years between the death of Lëwî and the Exodus. The Bible gives only a few life years during that time, but there are at least two life year dates that gave me a starting point: Möshëh was 80 years old when he stood before Parøôh and @Aárön was 83 years old (Exodus 7.7).

Click here to read the story of how I filled in the rest of the 430 years in the ICB Chronology.

Grace and peace to you,


My Journey: The 400 Years in Genesis 15.13

At last, I have finished revising my grammar analysis and translation discussion of Genesis 15.13 in the Masoretic and Septuagint texts. I admit both essays are technical and complex, but I wanted to record my research and thought process for future reference. I think it likely I’ll forget some of the nuances over time.

‘And He said to @Avräm, “Know for certain that your seed will become a sojourner in a land not theirs and they will serve them and [by them] they will be afflicted: 400 years.”’  [Genesis 15.13 (dmd translation)]

Currently, there is a belief among many Christians that the benê->Yisrä@ël were enslaved in Mitsräyim (Egypt) for 400 years.  I am confident that is incorrect.

Taking Exodus 12.40-41 (Septuagint) and Galatians 3.15 into account, as well as my research into the grammar and translation of Genesis 15.13, I contend the logical understanding of the 400 years is that @Avräm’s seed would be strangers and afflicted in whatever land they would be residing in during the 400 years. Only in hindsight was it clear that sometime during that 400 years, they would be enslaved.

I just realized that I did not include the following: the 400 year count starts with Yitschäq. Since the 400 years refers to @Avräm’s seed, that is the logical starting point. It was actually 405 years between Yitschäq’s birth and the Exodus. The 400 years is a rounding, something Scripture does more often than is probably realized.

I’ve included a summary of the main points of my translation discussion below, but if you want the reasoning behind them, you need to read the essay here.

I hope to post more about my journey of building the Internal Chronology of the Bible more quickly.

Grace and peace to you,


Summary of Translation Discussion

1) The words in the Masoretic translated “serve” and “afflict” do NOT connote slavery.  The word translated “serve” is the same word used to describe @Ädhäm ‘serving the ground.’  The word translated “afflict” is an intensified form of the verb but it does not connote slavery.

2) So, this verse does not refer to slavery, but rather to service and affliction, which YHWH permits in order to humble @Avräm’s seed so that they will depend on Him.  The idea that YHWH @Élöhîm was telling @Avräm that his seed would be enslaved is an interpretation made after the fact, years after the benê Yisrä@ël were, in fact, enslaved by the inhabitants of a land not belonging to them.  What YHWH @Élöhîm says to @Avräm does not require an understanding that his seed would be enslaved.  I would seriously question whether @Avräm understood YHWH to be saying so.

3) While slavery is not a concept conveyed in the words used in the Masoretic, it is a concept in the words used in the Septuagint. But the Septuagint was translated centuries after the event, by which time the translators knew “serve” and “afflict” included slavery; they emphasized that point in their translation word choices.

4) The English Reform scholars who translated the Geneva Bible in the 1550s noted in their comments on both Genesis 15.13 and Acts 7.6 (Stephanos’ paraphrase of Genesis 15.13) that the 400 years counted from the birth of Yitschäq to the Exodus. Since there are actually 405 years between the birth of Yitschäq and the Exodus, the 400 years is a rounding.

5) As I discussed in my essay on the 430 years, the Septuagint preserves a text fragment in Exodus 12.40-41 clarifying that the 430 year count includes the time spent in the land of Kenaøan. Paul confirms this in Galatians 3.15. In addition, the comments by the Geneva Bible translators indicate they also understood the 430 year count went from @Avräm to the Exodus.

6) I concede that the Septuagint translation gives the impression that the enslavement lasted for 400 years, yet it is the Septuagint that preserved the text fragment indicating that the 430 years ran from @Avräm to the Exodus.  So, looking at the two relevant passages in the Septuagint clarifies that the 400 years cannot refer solely to the time spent in Mitsräyim nor to the period of enslavement; it must include the time spent in Kenaøan when @Avräm’s seed were semi-nomadic herdsmen. Continue reading “My Journey: The 400 Years in Genesis 15.13”

My Journey: A Question of 430 years

After solving the logic puzzle of the birth order of Yaøáqöv’s sons, I could now plug Lëwî’s death into the ICB chart, which took the chart to the 307th year since @Avrähäm entered Kenaøan. Unfortunately, Scripture did not record when Lëwî’s son Qehäth was born in relation to Lëwî’s age or anything else. So, I really couldn’t take this any further forward using life years.

Was there something that would take me further?

Well, knowing how many years passed between @Avrähäm entering Kenaøan and the next big event, the Exodus, would be helpful. I could then use Möshëh’s age at the Exodus recorded in Scripture to count backwards and see where that put the Chronology.

Exodus 12.40-41 gives a summary count of years.

And the time of the dwelling of the sons of Israel, which they dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. And it happened, from the end of four hundred and thirty years, it happened on this day, all the armies of Jehovah went out from the land of Egypt. (Green[1])

Well, that seems pretty straightforward. The benê-­Yisrä@ël spent 430 years in Mitsräyim. But then, Rûãch @Élöhîm nudged me to look a little deeper.

At this point, Rûãch @Élöhîm led me to watch a documentary on Dr. David Rohl’s research into locating Biblical events and people in time, Pharaohs and Kings: A Biblical Quest[2]. Similar to Heinrich Schliemann who believed the Troy of Homer’s Iliad had actually existed, Dr. Rohl took the Biblical account at face value. While his findings are still not accepted by mainstream Egyptologists or Biblical scholars, I found what he had to say about Exodus 12.40 very informative.

Click here to go to the story of the 430 Years.

[1] Green, Jay P., sr.  Holy Bible:  KJ3 Literal Translation. Mulberry, IN: SGP Books.  2010, 1170p.

[2] Rohl, David M.  Pharaoahs and Kings:  A Biblical Quest.  (A Test of Time:  The Bible from Myth to History).  New York:  Crown Publishers, Inc.  1995, 425p.

Side Trip: YHWH ‘s Promise to Däwid

I went down this side trip rather late in my journey. I wouldn’t say I found anything earth-shattering on this side trip. But, being a romantic and knowing that YHWH @Élöhîm is a romantic too, it was just something I had wondered about. So, I chased the story down.

How YHWH @Élöhîm (LORD God) Kept His Promise to Däwid

Grace and peace to you,


My Journey: Solving a Logic Puzzle

Well, that was fun, figuring out how old Yaøáqöv was when he fell in love with Rächël based on the time clues given in Scripture. But what next? I still wasn’t thinking of this in terms of building an internal chronology of the Bible but that’s what I’d started doing in charting events by life years.

I don’t remember any longer why I kept charting life years. I guess I just got interested in it. I’ve always been interested in story chronologies, like Tolkien’s “Tale of Years” in The Lord of the Rings appendices. I grew up reading fantasy/sci fi novels and discovered many of the multi-volume series had inconsistant chronologies. I actually did chronology charts for some of them because I had picked up on the inconsistancies while reading the stories and wanted to know exactly what was what. Looking back now, I can see Rûãch @Élöhîm was training me to do a chronology of His Story:  only His Story is a true story.

So, what did I have with the charts I’d done to answer my first question? Combining them into one table took me to the death of Yôsëph at 110 years old, which was the 285th year since @Avrähäm entered Kenaøan. Okay. Did Scripture give life years for any of Yaøáqöv’s other sons?  It turns out that it does. Exodus 6:16-20 has a short geneaology of Lëwî’s line.

Click here to read the story of finding out how old Yaøáqöv was when Lëwî was born.

Grace and peace to you,


My Journey: The First Question

Through finding the answer to this first question, Rûãch @Élöhîm led me to compile the Internal Chronology of the Bible and everything else that followed in my pursuit of the truth of His Story and my appreciation of His artistry as an expression of who He is.

The First Question

In reading the story of Yaøáqöv and Rächël in Genesis, I saw a story of love at first sight, at least on Yaøáqöv’s part. And I wondered, “How old was Yaøáqöv when he fell in love with Rächël?”

Follow this link to the story of how I found the answer to the first question.

Grace and peace to you,


Musings on Side Trips

While my main journey focused on developing an Internal Chronology of the Bible, I took a lot of side trips along the way in seeking the answers to questions that came up. Some of these side trips related to the ICB and others did not.  Sometimes these side trips were simply research, but usually they involved my thinking about what I read or heard and reaching my own conclusions.

Since I found my side trips just as interesting as my main journey, I’m going to write them up and post them as Side Trips.

May the grace and peace of the God and Father of my Lord Jesus Christ be with you.


Premise and Perspective

The premise and perspective underlying my thinking and writing

I think it’s important to state the premise underlying all my writings and the perspective I take in thinking about things and analyzing them.  Readers may not agree with either the premise or the perspective, but at least you will know where I’m coming from and where my reasoning starts.  Or, more accurately, where Rûãch @Élöhîm (Spirit of God) has shown me that my reasoning must start, especially as I’m depending on Him to guide my thoughts into the truth.

The reverential fear of YHWH is the beginning of wisdom ~  
    And knowledge of the Holy One is understanding.  #  Proverbs 9.10


My initial premise – the premise underlying all my writings:

    YHWH @Élöhîm,
     the @Élöhîm of @Avrähäm, Yitschäq, and Yaøáqöv
               is Who He says He is, and
         has done what He says He has done
                   through Yeshûãø HamMashîãch (Jesus Christ)
      as recorded in the Hebrew and Christian Scriptures.

That’s it.  That’s the premise from which I start looking at what is, how it came to be, where it’s been, and where it’s going.  Another way to describe it is the premise is the universal that explains all the particulars, the holy grail of philosophy and science.

The Hebrew and Christian Scriptures (the Bible) are where YHWH @Élöhîm clearly states His claims about who He is and what He has done, is doing, and will do.  I believe Rûách @Élöhîm inspired men to write the Scriptures as infallible in the original writings, including editing prior to the closing of the canon.  I acknowledge that down through the millennia, copyist errors have crept in, in spite of the care taken in copying the Scriptures by both Jews and Christians.  However, I believe any copyist errors are minor and do not affect YHWH @Élöhîm’s claims in any way.  His written word remains authoritative and definitive for those who believe Him.

And, while I think some translations do a better job than others of translating the Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic into English (my native language and the only one I am qualified to comment on), I do not believe Rûách @Élöhîm designated any particular translation as the only one His believers should use, especially given that a certain amount of interpretation is inherent in the action of translating.  In fact,  and especially when doing a Bible study delving into the layers of the Word, I think it’s best to look at several translations plus the original languages in order to hear the what the Spirit is saying in the depths of His written word of truth.

Ultimately, the question is whether or not one believes YHWH @Élöhîm.  I believe Him.  I believe that He is who He says He is and that He has done what He says He’s done through His Word Incarnate, Yeshûãø hamMashîãch (Jesus Christ).

Who is YHWH @Élöhîm?

YHWH @Élöhîm is the Most High God, the Creator of heaven and earth.  He is the God and Father of my Lord Jesus Christ, the only omnipotent, omniscient, and omni-present God who exists, the @Élöhîm of @Avrähäm, Yitschaq, and Yaøáqöv.

This Story YHWH is telling is the one currently playing out on the stage of the earth, in the theater of the universe, the Story in which we live.  He recorded the specific Story of the Line of the Promise and the Gentile Addition in His written Word, the Bible.  As a written story, the Story of the Line of the Promise has its own internal chronology, irrespective of the outside chronology of His Story.


The perspective Rûách @Élöhîm directed me to take is that of the Storyteller. I look at history as an interactive, dramatic production playing out on the stage of the earth in the theatre of the universe, written, produced, and directed by YHWH @Élöhîm with input by the characters.

I view the flow of events as YHWH @Élöhîm telling His Story in order to accomplish His purpose. I look for the through line, themes, plot devices, plot structure, motifs, patterns, chief characters, foreshadowing, scene divisions, etc., used in telling stories. I find that history makes more sense when viewed from this perspective.

As part of this assignment, YHWH @Élöhîm gave me a great love of story and puzzle-solving as well as a delight in discovering how an author crafted his/her story in the telling of it.

So, there you are – my premise and my perspective.  I believe YHWH @ÉlöhÎm is who He says He is and that ‘history’ is ‘His Story.’  (And yes, I believe the pun is deliberate on YHWH’s part.  I’ve noticed that He’s fond of word plays.)

May the grace and peace of the Lord Jesus Christ be will you all.